Bernard Bolzano (UK: /bɒlˈtsɑːnoʊ/, US: /boʊltˈsɑː-,
Bolzano caricature mahmood tabrizi
Bolzano wrote in German, his native language. For the most part, his work came to prominence posthumously
Bolzano entered the University of Prague in 1796 and studied mathematics, philosophy and physics. Starting in 1800, he also began studying theology, becoming a Catholic priest in 1804. He was appointed to the new chair of philosophy of religion at Prague University in 1805. He proved to be a popular lecturer not only in religion but also in philosophy, and he was elected Dean of the Philosophical Faculty in 1818.
Bolzano alienated many faculty and church leaders with his teachings of the social waste of militarism and the needlessness of war. He urged a total reform of the educational, social and economic systems that would direct the nation’s interests toward peace rather than toward armed conflict between nations. Upon his refusal to recant his beliefs, Bolzano was dismissed from the university in 1819.
His political convictions, which he was inclined to share with others with some frequency, eventually proved to be too liberal for the Austrian authorities. He was exiled to the countryside and then devoted his energies to his writings on social, religious, philosophical, and mathematical matters.
Although forbidden to publish in mainstream journals as a condition of his exile, Bolzano continued to develop his ideas and publish them either on his own or in obscure Eastern European journals. In 1842 he moved back to Prague, where he died in 1848.
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